WITCHES BREW:A devilish mix of political corruption and sex slavery
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Published by iUniverse, United States New Paperback Quantity Available: New Quantity Available: Chiron Media Wallingford, United Kingdom. He comments that "in the case of such a close collaboration any such inquiry seems singularly superfluous and nugatory". Broedel, a historian who writes that it is likely that Sprenger's contribution was minimal, nonetheless says that "Sprenger certainly wrote the Apologia auctoris which prefaces the Malleus and agreed to be a coauthor.
Wolfgang Behringer argues that Sprenger's name was only added as an author beginning in , thirty-three years after the book was first published and decades after Sprenger's own death. Jacob Sprenger 's name was added as an author beginning in , 33 years after the book's first publication and 24 years after Sprenger's death.
Jenny Gibbons, a Neo-Pagan and a historian, writes: Secular courts, not inquisitorial ones, resorted to the Malleus ".
The preface also includes an allegedly unanimous approbation from the University of Cologne 's Faculty of Theology. Nevertheless, many historians have argued that it is well established by sources outside the Malleus that the university's theology faculty condemned the book for unethical procedures and for contradicting Catholic theology on a number of important points: In Heinrich Kramer had made one of the first attempts at prosecuting alleged witches in the Tyrol region.
It was not a success and he was asked to leave the city of Innsbruck. According to Diarmaid MacCulloch , writing the book was Kramer's act of self-justification and revenge.
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Ankarloo and Clark claim that Kramer's purpose in writing the book was to explain his own views on witchcraft, systematically refute arguments claiming that witchcraft does not exist, discredit those who expressed skepticism about its reality, claim that those who practiced witchcraft were more often women than men, and to convince magistrates to use Kramer's recommended procedures for finding and convicting witches.
Kramer received a papal bull , Summis desiderantes affectibus , in It directed Bishop of Strasburg then Albert of Palatinate-Mosbach to accept the authority of Heinrich Kramer as an Inquisitor, although the motivation of the papal bull was likely political. Kramer was intensely writing and preaching until his death in Bohemia in They were worthy of presence and patronage of Patriarch of Venice. He was appointed as papal nuncio and his assignment as inquisitor was changed to Bohemia and Moravia by Pope Alexander VI in Later, he was elected Provincial Superior of the whole German Province in He had enormous responsibilities.
He received a letter from Pope Alexander VI praising his enthusiasm and energy in Gender-specific theory developed in the Malleus Maleficarum laid the foundations for widespread consensus in early modern Germany on the evil nature of women as witches. Those who did, attributed female witchery to the weakness of body and mind the old medieval explanation and a few to female sexuality. Some authors argue that the book's publication was not as influential as earlier authors believed. Between and , twenty editions of the Malleus Maleficarum were published, and another sixteen between and The invention of printing some thirty years before the first publication of the Malleus Maleficarum instigated the fervor of witch hunting, and, in the words of Russell, "the swift propagation of the witch hysteria by the press was the first evidence that Gutenberg had not liberated man from original sin.
The late 15th century was also a period of religious turmoil. The Malleus Maleficarum and the witch craze that ensued took advantage of the increasing intolerance of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe, where the Protestant and Catholic camps respectively, pitted against one another, each zealously strove to maintain what they each deemed to be the purity of faith. The Catholic Counter-Reformation would eventually even out this religious turmoil, but until then both the Catholics and Protestants constantly battled for what they believed was right. The Latin book was firstly translated by J.
Montague Summers was responsible for the first English translation in Some translations ignore the most brutal third section and may be misleading to the reader. For instance, sections one and three have never been translated into Polish. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the album, see Malleus Maleficarum album. For the Supernatural episode, see Malleus Maleficarum Supernatural.
For the Cradle of Filth album, see Hammer of the Witches. For the film, see Witchhammer. Strappado torture , Rack torture , and Category: Medieval instruments of torture. Fellow Catholics, to whom we are forever bound in the communion of saints, did sin grievously against people accused of witchcraft.
If our historical memory can be truly purified, then the smoke from the Burning Times can finally disperse. He was one of the advocates of Aristotelian thought and opponents of via moderna , he was "one of Sprenger's most distinguished colleagues at Cologne, and the man whose name appears first on the faculty endorsement of the Malleus , [he] even went so far as to lead an abortive drive to obtain beatification for Aristotle. Archived from the original on Archived copy as title link "Archived copy". Mackay explains the terminology at length — sorcerer is used to preserve the relationship of the Latin terminology.
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Rather, it was their claim that harmful magic belonged exclusively to women that was new. If this assertion was granted, then the presence of maleficium indicated decisively the presence of a female witch. In the Malleus , the field of masculine magic is dramatically limited and male magicians are pointedly marginalized; magic is no longer seen as a range of practices, some of which might be more characteristic of men, some of women, and some equally prevalent among both sexes. Instead, it was the effects of magic that mattered most, and harmful magic, the magic most characteristic of witches, belonged to women.
Men might be learned magicians, anomalous archer wizards, or witch-doctors and superstitiosi, but very seldom did they work the broad range of maleficium typical of witches. Even his spelling of "maleficarum," with an a in a feminine gender instead of the usual masculine-gender "maleficorum" with an o, seems to emphasize his hostility toward women.
They were less clever, vainer, and more sexually insatiable. The Malleus devotes an entire chapter to the sinful weakness of women, their lascivious nature, moral and intellectual inferiority and gullibility to guidance from deceiving spirits. In Kramer's view, women witches were out to harm all of Christendom. Scholars have debated the reasons for Kramer's misogyny; he may have had a fear of the power of women mystics of his day, such as Catherine of Siena, who enjoyed the attentions of royalty as well as the church.
Kramer did accept the standard argument of misogynist demonologists that the female propensity for witchcraft was in part due to female weakness. He even derived the Latin word for woman, femina, from fe minus — 'less in faith. Kramer saw sex as the root of all sin, as that for which Adam and Eve originally fell.
Kramer also discussed witch-caused impotence at length, going so far as to claim that witches had the ability to steal men's penises through illusion. They argue that the evil of women stems from their physical and mental imperfections, a notion derived from Aristotle's theory that matter, perfection, and spirituality are purely expressed in the male body alone, and that women are misbegotten males produced by defective sperm. Women speak the language of idiots, Aristotle contends; like slaves, they are incapable of governing themselves or developing into the 'zoon politicon'.
Thomas Aquinas adapted these views to Christianity, arguing that because woman is less perfect than man, she is but an indirect image of God and an appendix to man. Citing such views, Kramer and Sprenger find that women are 'intellectually like children,' credulous and impressionable, and therefore easily fall prey to the devil.
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Lack of intelligence prevents women not only from distinguishing good from evil, but from remembering the rules of behavior. Amoral and undisciplined, women are governed primarily by passion. Widely influential, it was reprinted numerous times. This literature is in most cases intensely misogynistic, in the sense that it is demeaning, if not blatantly hostile, to women. The common theme in these demonological treatises is that women were more susceptible to demonic temptation because they were morally weaker than men and more likely, therefore, to succumb to diabolical temptation.
This idea, which dates from the earliest days of Christianity, is expressed most forcefully in the Malleus Maleficarum , but it can be found in many places, even in the sceptical demonological treatise of Johann Weyer. There is only one completely reliable way to combat witchcraft, and this is to eliminate the witches, the course of action Institoris and Sprenger endorse in one of the most impassioned passages of the Malleus [ There are few demonologists and writers upon witchcraft who do not refer to its pages as an ultimate authority.
Its ubiquity, however, must have made it an important contributor to the ideas that many educated people held of witches and the proper way to deal with them.
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Malleus Maleficarum , p. Such trials accepted a degree of the miraculous. Quite common until the twelfth century, they went into decline after improved legal procedures reestablished themselves in western Europe at that time. The cold water ordeal, however, would rise again during the witch hunts.
It could easily be argued that the practices of the medieval Church would fall under this definition, but since most contemporaries would have excluded such practices from the category, we will also ignore these here, and consider as "magical" only such practices as would not have been considered legitimate rites of the Church. Malleus Maleficarum pp 2 - 3.
Sometimes, as in the Saarland, Catholic overlords the Duke of Lorraine and the Archbishop of Trier were more likely to sponsor witch-hunts than Protestant sovereigns in this case, the Lutheran Count of Nassau and the Calvinist Count of Zweibrucken. But in other regions, for example French-speaking western Switzerland, Protestant rulers were more severe than Catholic overlords in prosecuting witches Monter Who Burned The Witches? They were experienced as shocking and distressing partly because they often used abusive language, distinct from their own daily vocabulary Sue: There was also some evidence that distress was exacerbated by the perception that the voices were not simply issuing generic abuse, but were working diligently and intelligently to upset the hearer and using differing strategies to achieve this aim.
These included interpersonal violence, disrespect, relentlessness, veiled threats, and more indirect and sophisticated psychological undermining or devaluing.