Der Schlittenmacher: Roman (German Edition)
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A global, thermal model of the VGF furnace has been developed for this purpose. Amongst them a small percentage of very mobile di-interstitials is found. The structure and energetics of these defects as well as their migration are investigated in more detail, and the results are compared with literature data. Mobile and immobile di-interstitial configurations are found. The migration mechanism shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature.
The di-interstitial diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. The di-interstitial migrates much faster than the mono-interstitial. The high mobility of the di-interstitials and the fact that they can be already formed during the ion bombardment may have implications for the current understanding of many experimental results obtained in the last decade, in particular for the explanation of the implantation-induced migration of interstitial-like defects at room temperature.
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Nitrogen recoil chromium implantation into SAE steel by means of ion beam or plasma immersion ion implantation Gomes, G. After polishing, SAE construction steel samples were covered with chromium and then bombarded with ions. As recoil bombarding atom, we used nitrogen, a light mass specimen.
Electro-vortex flows in shallow liquid metal layers Kolesnichenko, I. The metal flow is driven by an externally applied electrical current which interacts with its own magnetic field. Due to symmetry this interaction alone causes not yet a flow as the Lorentz force is purely irrotational. If, however, ferromagnetic C-cores or yokes are applied, the magnetic field distribution is modified and a flow driving action results.
An electro-vortex flow occurs with several eddies in this MHD-layer. In the stable case, for some range of electrical current values, these eddies are held in permanent position. The unstable case is characterized by an oscillation of the eddies, which are moving in the plane of the layer. One of the reasons to perform this study is related with the occurrence of similar unstable processes in some devices used for metallurgical purposes including the flat MHD-layer considered here.
We have investigated this flow by experimental and numerical methods. We applied the ultrasound Doppler velocimetry which allows us to measure velocity profiles in non-transparent media. The oxide particles of this alloy were acting as good tracers for ultrasound measurements and allowed us to obtain the time-dependences of the velocity profiles. At higher electrical currents, the profiles showed large-scale low-frequency oscillations.
Various types of flows are distinguished depending on the location of the ferromagnetic C-core. The mathematical model of the processes was based on the MHD-equations, which have been modified using a thin-layer approximation. The numerical calculations support the results obtained in experiments, and showed the behavior of the velocity field with the moving of the eddies. Furthermore the azimuthal distribution of the particle emission has been investigated.
Journal of Physics G 31 , Publ. The isotopic substitution of one of the two methyl groups with a [11C]methyl group would provide an access to a large number of interesting 11C-labelled compounds. Here we report a strategy for the synthesis of 11C-labelled prenyl group-containing derivatives starting from methyl-substituted alkynes 1 via a novel 11C-C bond forming reaction.
However, treatment of an excess of Schwartz reagent favors the formation of the sterically less hindered isomer 2. The binding affinities Ki values for the serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter were determined to be 5. Here, we report on the radiosynthesis of [18F]MCL and its radiopharmacological characterization involving biodistribution, autoradiography and small animal PET studies. Currently the electrophilic radiofluoro-destannylation reaction of N-Boc-3,4-di Boc-O trimethylstannyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with [18F]F2 has emerged as the preparation method of choice for the reliable and reproducible radiosynthesis of [18F]FDOPA Up to now the radiofluorination step of the trimethyltin precursor is carried out in trichlorofluoromethan CFCl3, Freon 11 as the solvent.
De Vries et al.
The authors also have investigated the possibility to substitute Freon 11 with other solvents. They discussed this finding with the formation of volatile radiofluorine compounds originating from the reaction of [18F]F2 gas with the solvents. For Freon 11 is hardly available in Europe for environmental protection reasons, we investigated the possibility of substituting Freon 11 with chloroform.
In contrast to 4 we use 5 M HCl for protecting group hydrolysis. First results with chloroform also show increased losses of radioactivity in comparison to Freon However, we found that the rate of radioactivity loss depends on the quality of the chloroform used. In contrast, using deuterated chloroform CDCl3 for NMR analysis purposes stabilised with silver no significant losses of radioactivity were observed in comparison with Freon Instead of that the observed radioactivity losses can be explained by the radiofluorination of stabilisers present in CHCl3.
Radiopharmacological characterisation of [11C]AL was performed in Wistar rats using biodistribution studies, ex vivo autoradiography and small animal PET studies. The total synthesis time including HPLC-purification was min. Biodistribution studies in rats demonstrated a brain uptake of 1. Brain to blood ratios at 5 min and 60 min p.
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The pituitary and adrenals as major GR-containing peripheral organs showed uptake of 2. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies of [11C]AL on rat brain 5 min after i. Based on the observation of both, interstitial- and vacancy-type defects, a stacked structure of layers of vacancy and interstitial clusters was detected. These defects form a substructure within the basic dual structure consisting of a vacancy-dominated and an interstitial-dominated region.
Worldwide several experiments have been performed in this field accompanied with material properties evaluation, theoretical, and numerical work. At the Institute of Safety Research of the FZR a finite element model FEM has been devel-oped simulating the thermal processes and the viscoplastic behaviour of the vessel wall. An advanced model for creep and material damage has been established and has been validated using experimental data. The thermal and the mechanical calculations are sequentially and recursively coupled.
The model is capable of evaluating fracture time and fracture position of a vessel with an internally heated melt pool. These experiments were performed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In this paper the differences between the results of a simple coupled and a recursive coupled FE-simulation are highlighted.
Due to the thermal expansion at the beginning and the accu-mulating creep strain later on the shape of the melt pool and of the vessel wall are changing. Despite of the fact that these relative small geometrical changes take place relatively slowly over time, the effect on the temperature field is rather significant concerning the mechanical material behavior and the resulting failure time. Assuming the same loading conditions, the change in the predicted failure time between the simple and the recursive coupled model is in the order of magnitude of the total failure time of the simple model.
The comparison with results from the FOREVER-experiments shows that the recursive coupled model is closer to reality than the one-way coupled model. Keywords: experimental investigation of a severe accident with core melt down, recursively coupled thermal and mechanical FE-model, sensitivity analysis of different approaches Annals of Nuclear Energy 33 2, DOI: Para el tratamiento de aguas dulces se ha ensayado biomasa procedente de bacterias, hongos y algas. Unusual insertion elements probably involved in the evolution of the S-Layer protein genes of B.
Interestingly, the S-layer-like gene copies of the two IS elements are analogous to the coding parts of the previously described plasmid-located, identical between each other, and siltent S-layer genes of the two strains. Comparative analyses of the functional, of the plasmid-located, and of the IS-element-specific S-layer genes of the above mentioned two strains between each other and with the S-layer genes of the other Bacillus sphaericus strains studied up to date revealed that all functional S-layer genes possess mosaic structure and share regions with very high identitiy which are surrounded by regions possessing very low or almost no identity.
Our results strongly suggest that the functional S-layer protein genes in Bacillus sphaericus have evolved via horizontal transfer of genetic information followed by rearrangements which were mediated by mobile elements. The primary structure of the functional S-layer of the uranium mining waste isolage JG-A12 and in particular its higher capability in comparison to the other S-layers to bind uranium and other metals indicate that the environmental stress factors played an important role in the evolution of its gene.
Fate of U VI added to a U mining waste pile sample and the resulting changes in the indigenous microbial community Geissler, A. Part of the most contaminated portion was additionally incubated under anaerobic conditions. Bothe, selective sequential extraction SSE and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses, indicated that added U VI was bound as uranyl by inner-sphere sorption complexes.
Analyses of the constructed 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the untreated and of the U VI -supplemented samples revealed changes in the bacterial and in the archaeal parts of the natural microbial community. Instead, a large number of sequences were found representing Gamma-Pseudomonas spp. Actinobacteria as well as Geobacter spp.
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The anaerobic treatment of this sample induced also proliferation of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in it. The archaeal populations in the original waste sample were rather diverse, whereas the supplemented with U samples wee strongly predominated by a few particular Grenarchaeota species. Our results indicate that the addition of U VI to a low contaminated uranium mining waste sample induces significant shifting in the indigenous microbial populations in dependence on the amount of U VI and the redox conditions.
Stability constants evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy for metal complexes Geipel, G. The stability constants in both solution sytems are comparable. As a consequence this demonstrates the possible use of such compounds in for complexation of metal ions aquatic systems. As the fluorescence decay times change with the concentration of the added metal ion two effects have to be discussed: Dynamic fluorescence quenching, excited state reactions of the ligand. In case of dynamic fluorescence quenching a linear relationship between the concentration of the quencher and the ratio of the fluorescence decay time without and with quencher should be observed.
Lecture Conference 2nd Supraphone Meeting Dresden , High demands on the sensitivity in speciation of actinides lead to the development of advanced detection methods. This is connected with intensive use of laser systems as excitation source. The development of tunable solid-state lasers overcame some disadvantages of dye laser systems. The application of low temperatures for samples measured with fluorescence spectroscopic methods brought effort in the detection of carbonate species. The availability of modern femtosecond laser systems in combination with ICCD Intensified Charge Coupled Device cameras gave the possibility to exploit the fluorescence properties of aromatic organic compounds for the study of their interaction with actinides, especially non-fluorescent metal ions.
The speciation of actinides in arsenate and several carbonate systems was investigated.
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The interaction with ligands from life sciences as ATP adenosine triphosphate and sugar phosphates became more and more important. Also studies of the speciation of actinides in plants and microorganism cannot be neglected. In the solid state the speciation of uranium VI in several natural and synthetic minerals has been studied as well as the behaviour of depleted uranium in the environment. The interaction of actinides with rock materials and minerals as well as their uptake is also of common interest in actinide chemistry. Especially the sorption and inclusion of Cm into several minerals lead to an improvement in knowledge of minor components in solids.
It is not possible to give a complete overview on the literature about the laser-induced spectroscopy of actinides. The restricted length of this contribution allows only a relatively small and personally influenced selection. Schifft sich mit Familie am Zieht nach Bariloche in den Anden. Januar Gibt als Wohnadresse ein Apartment Fuldners an.